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refractory material shows the characteristic phenomena like

  • Modelling of high-chromia refractory spalling in

    2008-12-1 · One of the most severe refractory degradation mechanisms is spalling, which can occur by either volume-expansion phenomena (compressive stresses) or by volume-shrinkage phenomena (tensile stresses). A volume-shrinkage model is benchmarked to high-chromia refractory material properties and performance under gasifier operating …

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  • Transient refractory material dissolution by a ...

    2014-12-1 · Test results clearly show that dissolution of solid refractory material can occur in a non-eutectic melt at a temperature which is lower than the melting temperature of the refractory material. During the dissolution transient, the interface temperature rises above the liquidus temperature, corresponding to the instantaneous average …

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  • Damage Pattern Recognition and Feature

    Based on the AE experiment, the nonlinear mechanical property of refractory material is studied in the method of signal process: the damage pattern is recognized by means of coefficient analysis of the wavelet energy spectrum, and then the damage characteristics are extracted through the time-frequency analysis method according to the …

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  • Service life prediction for refractory materials ...

    2008-6-1 · The RSE material presents a higher value of resistance R from the as-received conditions up to approximately 50 cycles. This behavior corresponds to the fact that this material shows a delayed fracture initiation with regard to BRT material, according to industrial data available .

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  • Dissolution of refractories for gasification

    2012-3-1 · Some studies have shown erosion phenomena in the refractory hot face when they have been employed with solid feedstock (coal or petroleum coke) in the lining of gasifiers. This is attributed to solid materials, since they tend to be abrasive when are injected at high speeds.

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  • The influence of flow asymmetry on refractory

    2019-9-1 · In addition, the chemical properties of the slag and steel, atmosphere and temperature of process are factors that affect refractory linings. Hence the refractory structure zoning is important and the choice is made taking into account the physicochemical characteristics of the refractory and the environment to which it is …

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  • Correlation of Thermo-Elastic Material and

    Refractory materials are most suitable and developed for extreme operating conditions. In addition to high temperatures, the refractory linings are also often exposed to highly corrosive media. The different chemical compositions of material and corrosion medium leads to a gradient of the chemical potential.

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  • Correlation of Thermo-Elastic Material and

    2020-3-9 · to high temperatures, the refractory linings are also often exposed to highly corrosive media. The di erent chemical compositions of material and corrosion medium leads to a gradient of the chemical potential. This makes interactions between these two partners unavoidable. The kinetics of the reactions is favored at high temperatures.

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  • Experimental and numerical study of the

    2007-1-1 · Micrographs of an industrial refractory and of a simplified model material: (a) industrial refractory and (b) simplified model material. The glass frit is mixed with additives (water, methocel, peg300, acetic acid) which improve the plasticity and lubrication of the mixture. 4 The good content of alumina balls is then added to this …

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  • Mathematical Modeling of Flow and Heat

    2010-6-1 · Beerkens, 5 in addition to reviewing furnace modeling literature, described key phenomena involved in glass melting and auxiliary processes (e.g., evaporation from glass melt surface, refractory corrosion) and summarized transport equations governing flow and heat transfer phenomena in the glass melt. One of the most important areas …

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  • Service life prediction for refractory materials ...

    2008-6-1 · Ultrasonic pulse velocity testing and image analysis were used to predict the thermal stability of cordierite–mullite refractories. Two compositions used as substrates in fast firing of porcelain whiteware, characterized by different microstructure and crack propagation behavior, were investigated. Fracture strength and fracture toughness …

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  • Multiwavelength Observations of the RV Tauri

    2021-3-21 · refractory elements, in the photospheres of post-AGB stars, that correlates with the condensation temperature of an element (Giridhar et al. 2000). In order to get a depleted photosphere, the stellar radiation pressure on circumstellar material separates dust grains (containing refractory elements) from the volatile-

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  • Development and exploration of refractory high

    Development and exploration of refractory high entropy alloys—A review - Volume 33 Issue 19 ... Lin, Chen, Lin and Yeh 14, Reference Lilensten, Couzinie, Perriere, Hocini, Keller, Dirras and Guillot 25 The single phase material shows both yield stress and maximum true stress close to 1000 MPa, as well as tensile plastic strain far beyond 10% ...

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  • Optimization of Properties for Alumina-Spinel

    2010-6-1 · Beerkens, 5 in addition to reviewing furnace modeling literature, described key phenomena involved in glass melting and auxiliary processes (e.g., evaporation from glass melt surface, refractory corrosion) and summarized transport equations governing flow and heat transfer phenomena in the glass melt. One of the most important areas …

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  • Physical and Technological Aspects of

    Nozzle clogging in continuous casting of steel originates by the adherence of alumina particles and other oxides, precipitated during the liquid steel deoxidation, on the refractory material’s surface. Hence, these particles’ nucleation and growth rates in supersaturated melts are analyzed considering, specifically, the role of the interfacial …

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  • Mathematical Modeling of Flow and Heat

    2017-8-11 · Wave-Particle Duality Publicized early in the debate about whether light was composed of particles or waves, a wave-particle dual nature soon was found to be characteristic of electrons as well. The evidence for the description of light as waves was well established at the turn of the century when the photoelectric effect introduced firm evidence of a particle …

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  • The Physical Chemistry of Steel Deoxidation and

    The shortcomings intrinsic in conventional unburned carbon-containing refractory bricks, i.e., oxidization under high temperature conditions and incidental decarbonization, and the phenomenon of exfoliation and detachment of the fragile layers are overcome by utilizing a refractory brick material comprising substantially more than 1 weight % carbon, 1-10 …

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  • Wave-Particle Duality

    2010-2-21 · Recently it has been revealed that when approaching the glass-transition temperature, Tg, the dynamics of a liquid not only drastically slows down, but also becomes progressively more heterogeneous.

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  • Combustion joining of refractory materials:

    Simultaneously, carbon from the composite material is dissolved into the liquid-metal layer, leading to the formation of a refractory phase (TiC) with a much higher viscosity than the metal. Because the characteristic squeezing rate is much higher than the characteristic diffusion time, the thickness of the final joining layer is essentially ...

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  • ACP - Mixing characteristics of refractory black

    Abstract. Black carbon aerosols play an important role in climate change because they directly absorb solar radiation. In this study, the mixing state of refractory black carbon (rBC) at an urban site in Beijing in the early summer of 2018 was studied with a single-particle soot photometer (SP2) as well as a tandem observation system with a …

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  • Optimization of Properties for Alumina-Spinel

    Development and exploration of refractory high entropy alloys—A review - Volume 33 Issue 19 ... Lin, Chen, Lin and Yeh 14, Reference Lilensten, Couzinie, Perriere, Hocini, Keller, Dirras and Guillot 25 The single phase material shows both yield stress and maximum true stress close to 1000 MPa, as well as tensile plastic strain far beyond 10% ...

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  • Development and exploration of refractory high

    ABSTRACT Development in refractory linings for the various furnaces encountered in the nonferrous foundry industry is outlined, and figures given showing the present trend. These include open‐flame, crucible, and electric furnaces. The open‐flame furnaces formerly used firebrick linings, but silicon‐carbide and high alumina refractories are …

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  • REFRACTORIES AND REFRACTORY CEMENTS

    2021-3-2 · The formation and removal of exogenous inclusions in a real-size two-strand tundish is simulated by the proposed unsteady 3D comprehensive numerical model of the respective fluid-structure interaction, which takes into account the impacting and washing effects on the refractory wear. A large eddy simulation is employed to describe the …

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  • Numerical Simulation on Refractory Wear and

    2017-8-11 · Wave-Particle Duality Publicized early in the debate about whether light was composed of particles or waves, a wave-particle dual nature soon was found to be characteristic of electrons as well. The evidence for the description of light as waves was well established at the turn of the century when the photoelectric effect introduced firm evidence of a particle …

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  • Wave-Particle Duality

    FIELD: chemistry. SUBSTANCE: scope of invention covers fused moulded refractory material intended for the purpose where the mentioned material contacts with melted glass, particularly, for use in edge zones of glass-melting furnace at temperatures below 1150°C. The refractory material contains, % w/w: more than 85% ZrO 2 , 2-8 SiO 2 , 0.12 …

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  • RU2324670C2 - Fused moulded refractory

    2010-2-21 · Recently it has been revealed that when approaching the glass-transition temperature, Tg, the dynamics of a liquid not only drastically slows down, but also becomes progressively more heterogeneous.

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  • Critical-like behaviour of glass-forming liquids |

    At present, a similar material most commonly used in the similarity model experiment of rock blasting is cement mortar. However, it is not transparent, which leads to the problem that the cracks in the model made of cement mortar after the test cannot be observed directly. Therefore, a kind of transparent hard rock-like material that can replace the existing model material …

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  • Damage Detection of Refractory Based on Principle ...

    2019-7-30 · Compute the features and its characteristic vec-tor. Set 1, 2,..., to be eigenvalues of . Meanwhile, ... Figure shows the microstructure of such a refractory without damage. e magnesia aggregates are ... AE is dened as phenomena …

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  • Combustion joining of refractory materials:

    Simultaneously, carbon from the composite material is dissolved into the liquid-metal layer, leading to the formation of a refractory phase (TiC) with a much higher viscosity than the metal. Because the characteristic squeezing rate is much higher than the characteristic diffusion time, the thickness of the final joining layer is essentially ...

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  • Pores: their classification and role in actual

    2011-11-18 · Refractory objects are a common case of a solid with pores, which serve as a source of valuable information about many material and object properties. Present in practically all structural elements (in coarse grains, in a binder, and between coarse grains and binder), pores may occupy from 90% to an extremely small volume of a refractory.

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  • Multiplicity of dislocation pathways in a

    2020-10-2 · Refractory alloys are attractive candidates for use at extremely high temperatures as is demanded by many technology applications, particularly in the aerospace and power-generation sectors (6, 7). Progress in alloy development in this material class, however, has been slow and stands to benefit from the MPEA design …

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  • CN101094816B - Refractory materials - Google

    Discuss; 239000011819 refractory material Substances 0.000 title abstract description 128; 239000000463 material Substances 0.000 claims abstract description 198; 239000011521 gla

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  • Evaluation of the Microstructural Aspects,

    2019-5-17 · MoTaNbVTi refractory high entropy alloy was synthesized by the vacuum arc melting technique in its equi-atomic composition. The modification of its microstructural features along the vertical cross-section of the sample was associated with undercooling phenomena and the release of heat of fusion. The examined system exhibited high …

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  • RU2324670C2 - Fused moulded refractory

    FIELD: chemistry. SUBSTANCE: scope of invention covers fused moulded refractory material intended for the purpose where the mentioned material contacts with melted glass, particularly, for use in edge zones of glass-melting furnace at temperatures below 1150°C. The refractory material contains, % w/w: more than 85% ZrO 2 , 2-8 SiO 2 , 0.12 …

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  • Effect of sintering temperature on the structural

    2019-4-17 · Characteristics of synthesized refractory forsterite precursors. Figure 1(a) shows the infrared spectrum of the unsintered sample, and Fig. 1(b–e) reveals the spectra of the samples sintered at different temperatures. For the unsintered sample (Fig. 1(a)), the most obvious peak is located at 3436 cm −1, which is commonly attributed to the …

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  • Top 10 Materials with the Highest Melting Point

    2021-6-1 · Microlasers in near-degenerate supermodes play a pivotal role for studies of non-Hermitian physics, novel light sources, and advanced sensors. However, the widely observed beating phenomena and the single-mode nature of the stimulated scattering have been generating the lasing characteristic dilemma. In this article, we …

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  • Pores: their classification and role in actual

    2011-11-18 · Refractory objects are a common case of a solid with pores, which serve as a source of valuable information about many material and object properties. Present in practically all structural elements (in coarse grains, in a binder, and between coarse grains and binder), pores may occupy from 90% to an extremely small volume of a refractory.

    Get Price
  • (PDF) PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION

    Refractories are employed in great quantities in The characteristic properties of a refractory are a the metallurgical, glassmaking, and ceramics function of both raw material base and the method industries, where they are formed into a variety of of production used for the refractory product. shapes to line the interiors of furnaces, kilns ...

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  • Multiplicity of dislocation pathways in a

    2020-10-2 · Refractory alloys are attractive candidates for use at extremely high temperatures as is demanded by many technology applications, particularly in the aerospace and power-generation sectors (6, 7). Progress in alloy development in this material class, however, has been slow and stands to benefit from the MPEA design …

    Get Price
  • Optimization of Properties for Alumina-Spinel

    2021-6-1 · Hence, the raw material selection and refractory design is a critical concern for practical applications. In order to study the influence of CMA aggregates on the thermal shock resistance of castables, CMOR and residual CMOR ratio of samples after air quenching test (5 times) were measured and calculated, respectively.

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  • Refractory disease | Article about Refractory

    disease, impairment of the normal state or functioning of the body as a whole or of any of its parts. Some diseases are acute, producing severe symptoms that terminate after a short time, e.g., pneumonia; others are chronic disorders, e.g., arthritis, that last a long time; and still others return periodically and are termed recurrent, e.g., malaria.

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  • Single-mode characteristic of a supermode

    2021-6-1 · Microlasers in near-degenerate supermodes play a pivotal role for studies of non-Hermitian physics, novel light sources, and advanced sensors. However, the widely observed beating phenomena and the single-mode nature of the stimulated scattering have been generating the lasing characteristic dilemma. In this article, we …

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  • The Electronic Structure of a 'Kagome' Material

    2017-4-6 · Here, we would like to discuss about the stability of the oxides calculated by thermodynamics. Fig. 6(a) shows the Ellingham diagram for NiO, MoO2 and WO2 [7]. MoO2 and WO2 are more advantageous in energy than MoO3 and WO3 when they are on their metal surfaces in a vacuum as shown in Fig. 6(b) and (c).

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  • Emergent phenomena at oxide interfaces |

    2021-7-2 · 深部生物圈即埋藏在地球深部的黑暗生态系统,一般指海底沉积物1 m以下环境中栖息的生态系统 [1]。不同于利用太阳能进行光合作用维持的地表生物圈,深部微生物可通过化能合成作用将无机物转化为有机质,并作为初级生产者为消费者提供能量和碳源,形成一个“黑暗食物链”。

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  • An Index of Refractory Organics - EPA

    ----- ABSTRACT Refractory waterborne organics resist biodegradation, accumulate in the environment and can inhibit life forms. This research develops laboratory techniques for, and interpretations of, a Refractory Index (R.I.) to assess quantitatively the persistency of refractory organics and uses the R.I. determination to evaluate some 38 industrial, …

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  • Some Features of Growing Single Crystals of

    Free alumina in refractory clays is probably always present a s hydroxide, either colloidal or as the minerals, diaspor,* or gibbsite. FIG.3.-Photomicrograph to left: Medina quartzite, shows variously oriented quartz crystals, each with a sand grain as a nucleus. The outlines of the original grains are well shown in the two crystals to the left.

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  • NATURE AND ORIGIN OF REFRACTORY CLAYS,

    2021-6-1 · Hence, the raw material selection and refractory design is a critical concern for practical applications. In order to study the influence of CMA aggregates on the thermal shock resistance of castables, CMOR and residual CMOR ratio of samples after air quenching test (5 times) were measured and calculated, respectively.

    Get Price
  • Optimization of Properties for Alumina-Spinel

    Refractories are employed in great quantities in The characteristic properties of a refractory are a the metallurgical, glassmaking, and ceramics function of both raw material base and the method industries, where they are formed into a variety of of production used for the refractory product. shapes to line the interiors of furnaces, kilns ...

    Get Price
  • (PDF) PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION

    2015-2-23 · The role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) as either a sink for inorganic nutrients or an additional nutrient source is an often-neglected component of nutrient budgets in aquatic environments.

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  • Refractory dissolved organic nitrogen

    Abrasive and Fretting Wear Resistance of Refractory Cobalt Alloy Specimens Manufactured by the Method of Selective Laser Melting ... Fretting wear studies on diamond-like carbon coated Ti–6Al–4V. By Ganesh Sundara Raman. INTRODUCTION TO TRIBOLOGY. By Jose Manuel Lopez Mendez. Fretting wear of Ti(C x N y ) PVD coatings …

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  • (PDF) Abrasive and Fretting Wear Resistance of

    2020-8-24 · A refractory high-entropy alloy was designed with the composition chosen based on the natural-mixing characteristics among refractory elements; this alloy demonstrates good tensile ductility in ...

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  • Natural-mixing guided design of refractory high

    2010-6-28 · (about 1% will appear as X-rays), the anode material should have a high melting point and good heat conduction ability. To get a high relative amount of X-ray energy, the anode material should be of high atomic number. Tungsten is the dominating anode material and is in modern X-ray tubes often mixed with renium (ZW =74; ZRe=75).

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  • An Index of Refractory Organics - EPA

    ----- ABSTRACT Refractory waterborne organics resist biodegradation, accumulate in the environment and can inhibit life forms. This research develops laboratory techniques for, and interpretations of, a Refractory Index (R.I.) to assess quantitatively the persistency of refractory organics and uses the R.I. determination to evaluate some 38 industrial, …

    Get Price
  • Molecular Expressions: Science, Optics, and You:

    The invention relates to precluding the shortcomings intrinsic to the conventional unburned carbon-containing refractory bricks, i.e., oxidization under high temperature conditions and the incidental decarbonization, the phenomenon of exfoliation and detachment of the fragile layers, and more particularly to obtaining thereby unburned carbon-containing refractory …

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  • US4306030A - Carbon-containing refractory -

    2021-1-2 · Only refractory fuels like coal to some extent, tantalum or zirconium, burn at the solid surface; iron and titanium, having intermediate melting points for both the metals and the oxides, burn at the surface of a molten mixture of the metal and its oxide, whereas

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  • Combustion characteristics - UPM

    2020-8-24 · A refractory high-entropy alloy was designed with the composition chosen based on the natural-mixing characteristics among refractory elements; this alloy demonstrates good tensile ductility in ...

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  • Natural-mixing guided design of refractory high

    Abstract. Refractory ceramics were produced from clays and alumina waste. Specimens were shaped by uniaxial pressing, subjected to thermal analysis by dilatometry and heat-treated in a conventional furnace at 1300 and 1400ºC, applying a heating rate of 5ºC/min and a dwell time of 2 and 3 hours at the maximum temperature.

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  • SciELO - Brasil - Refractory Ceramics of Clay and

    2004-10-5 · The paper discusses the material removal process in refractory ceramics eroded by hydro-abrasive jets. In particular, bauxite, sintered magnesia, and magnesia chromite are eroded. The influence of abrasive particle velocity, local exposure time, abrasive mass-flow rate, and abrasive type is investigated. Erosion depth, specific …

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  • Hydro-abrasive erosion of refractory ceramics,

    2005-8-16 · branched rod-like). 54) 2.2 Exogenous inclusions Exogenous inclusions arise primarily from the incidental chemical (reoxidation) and mechanical interaction of liquid steel with its surroundings (slag entrainment and erosion of lining refractory). In machining, they produce chatter, causing pits and gouges on the surface of machined …

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  • INCLUSIONS IN CONTINUOUS CASTING OF STEEL

    The compressive stiffness ranged from 4 to 77 MPa, yield strength from 0.4 to 3.6 MPa and yield strain from 4% to 28%. Analysis of the measured data shows a high correlation between the scaffold porosity and the compressive properties …

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  • Fused deposition modeling of novel scaffold

    2021-6-10 · Discharge tube: current vs. voltage characteristic. Shown below is a 'typical' current vs. voltage characteristic for a gas discharge tube. The graph is only typical however in the sense that all tubes exhibit the conduction behaviour shown, but the corresponding voltages and currents, and the relative lengths of the various regions, are …

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